Varicose veins: symptoms, causes, treatment

Varicose veins, symptoms of which are found in about every fourth inhabitant of the planet is not just a cosmetic defect, which manifests itself in the form of a blue tree mesh in the legs, thighs or rear feet, heavy legs, pain in case of static loads, or long periods of walking, jerking in the muscles of the legs, but also a high risk of thrombosis in Vena cava inferior system.

varicose veins

Thrombotic complications lead to trophic ulcers on the legs, acute disorders of blood flow with blueness of the extremities and the risk of necrosis. Breaking away from the vascular wall, blood clots from the legs often begin a journey that ends in the heart (leading to heart attack) or cerebral vessels (causing a stroke). It is this fact, and not a spoiled view of the once beautiful legs require the earliest attention to the treatment (and preferably prevention) of varicose veins.

Because the disease appeared, is not static, but gradually progresses, capturing new segments of external or internal venous network of the legs, then the parsing of the treatment is to begin with a description of the prevention. Reasonable preventive measures will at least somewhat slow down the process, developed on the background of inherited insolvency valvular veins of the lower extremities.

Prevention of varicose veins

The veins of the lower extremities have very weak walls, almost devoid of muscular elements that could push blood by reducing. Therefore, veins have special valves that prevent backflow of blood and its stagnation in the veins. In some people these valves hereditary insolvent or become so with age:

  • in severe physical exertion
  • increases intra-abdominal pressure
  • constipation
  • frequent pregnancies.

First, the process affects external veins. And then marvel at the collector of the vein and the deep venous network. Varicose veins of the limbs develops over several (sometimes tens) of years, and its speed varies according to lifestyle intensity physical activity and strength of blood vessels.

  • The first goal of prevention is to minimize the increase in intra-abdominal pressure (to combat constipation, to avoid excessive overload).
  • The second task is to create the conditions for passive outflow of venous blood from the legs. Make sure it is in the end of the day or several times a day. To this end, the legs are stacked from the foot to the hip on the surface at an angle of 45 degrees to the horizontal. Lie in this position should be at least half an hour. Persons with varicose veins in the legs is an accomplished medical fact, it is recommended to sleep with raised legs as often as possible.
  • When varicose veins is recommended not to use tight shoes, socks with tight elastic – that is, not to create additional obstacles for blood circulation in the legs.
  • It also should not sit foot to foot and with prolonged sitting position, put your feet well supported and give them a horizontal (or slightly higher) position. Such a position, you can sometimes see in gangster movies about cool mafia that sitting in a chair, put his feet on the table.
  • Of course, in the office, if You are the owner of the company, will have to come up with something a little less challenging. You can, for example, to put under the Desk a cardboard box and put legs on it or use for this purpose high plastic wastepaper basket with flat top lid. For any questions about an unusual way to sit at your Desk, you should honestly answer in order to avoid ridicule and not to be bizarre. It should be remembered that no employee will take an active participation in your treatment. Therefore it is necessary to perceive the opinions of others and not to neglect the prevention of disease.
  • If you are at home, try to take a horizontal position and positioned with the aid of several pillows, his legs above his head. This is necessary in order to improve conditions for venous outflow.

Conservative treatment

In the program of nonsurgical treatment included diet, compression and drug therapy.


Dietary event is mandatory, since weight is one of the risk factors of developing varicose veins. Food must be compensated (the consumed energy should not exceed energy needs correlated with nature of loads or their absence). In addition, the menu will have to eliminate spicy seasonings, pepper, pickles, excess salt, smoked meats, and reduce the consumption of fried. Alcohol is also recommended not to use it.

The menu must contain a sufficient amount of vegetables and fruits rich in vitamin C, food rich in fiber, wholemeal bread, seafood. Shown frequent (at least 4 times a day) fractional power. As for the fashion a few years ago, the tendency to limit itself in any animal fats, and should forget about it. Of course, prohibitive figure of triglycerides and cholesterol is not the case. But in reasonable quantities cholesterol helps to patch the vascular wall, reducing the risk of secondary thrombotic complications and sudden ruptures of the veins.

* No Smoking

Smoking is the most harmful habit with varicose veins. If the choice is between drinking moderate amounts of alcohol and Smoking, first you can still barely endure. But the second – have categorically excluded. Not only resin clog blood vessels, increasing the risks of thrombosis and secondary complications (heart attacks, strokes, pulmonary embolism). You should be especially careful for those who have varicose veins (or predisposed to it), take hormones and still manages to smoke.

Compression garments (stockings, socks, tights)

This is a good option for the prevention and treatment of early stages of varicose veins, as they have different parameters of pressure on the soft tissues, variants of models and colours. To wear underwear is necessary in the morning, before getting out of bed, while the venous system is not full with blood. For this method there is one but – prohibitive price tags on the territory of the Russian Federation, limiting the acquisition of the knit against varicose veins broad masses of the people. As a rule, the use of linen did not begin the those for whom it still can help at the stage before the disease, and those with severe forms of varicose veins, often complicated by some processes, which is shown operative treatment and compression hosiery as secondary prevention.

Varicose veins: treatment

Drugs are not a panacea. To completely stop or cure varicose veins, they are not.

Creams and gels

This means it is possible to protect the walls of the veins, stimulate the venous outflow and improves microcirculation. These funds can reduce pain intensity and edema, subject to course admission. Shown courses twice a year for duration of at least 2 months.

The most useless (but safe) you can read ointments or gels. Creams do not penetrate beyond the skin and any worthwhile effect on the blood vessels can not provide. They are recommended in the early stages of the disease, when it is unknown why actually can undergo swelling and heaviness in the legs: from the drugs, or simple postural drainage and the end of the exercise.

vein treatment

This therapy involves the administration of drugs or elastic bandaging. Its simplicity, preservation of the aesthetic appearance of the limbs, no effects on the overall health of the patient are attracted to this technique, both doctors and patients.

But sclerotherapy is not isolated brings lasting results and is not able to stop the progression of the disease. In most cases, it still must be combined with surgery. Before the therapy should be performed ultrasound examination of the lower extremities, precluding extensive destruction of the subcutaneous or deep veins of the legs.

Contraindications to this technique are: Allergy drugs, atherosclerosis of the great vessels with the presence of ischemia, diabetic angiopathy, obliterating endarteritis, lesions of the blood coagulation system, acute or recent thrombosis of the legs, pregnancy.

Therapy options

  • Before surgery - sclerotherapy of veins may be used before surgery to reduce the risks of bleeding and thrombosis during the postoperative period
  • during the operation, replacing vein removal
  • after surgery to close the remaining veins.

Method puncture

If it is not applied in the operating room is conducted in a dedicated surgical room, with all the rules of asepsis. First, close the larger veins, then smaller ones. The medications are usually imposed from the top down. Punctured a vein standing of the patient, and before the introduction of the drug stack. If the field of interests goes a long vessel or vessels the entire circumference of the leg, then a few therapy sessions. After sclerosing treatment the patient should be observed phlebologist for three years after the last injection.

  • After the injection is carried out by elastic bandaging of the limb, which is repeated for 2 weeks. In the first week the bandage is not removed.
  • Within half an hour after the procedure, the patient needs to walk.
  • A patient needs to sleep with a raised foot end, and during the day to avoid prolonged sitting or standing and a lot of walking.

Varicose veins: surgery

The decision on whether surgical intervention is made by a physician or vascular surgeon.

Often women with a lesion of the superficial veins and decided on surgical intervention solely because of a cosmetic defect, I propose to postpone the surgery, if you plan on subsequent childbearing (as during pregnancy the varicose veins, as a rule, progresses, and results may disappear and require repeated surgical treatment).

Combined phlebectomy

The most common operational solution to the problem of varicose veins of the lower extremities is combined phlebectomy. The operation is performed under General anesthesia or with epidural. All the cuts and punctures try to do as smaller sizes. For example, to remove the great saphenous vein, the incision is performed in the groin area. Through it, the vein injected with the probe tip. Then the probe is removed and is sent to Vienna from the middle part of the Shin to groin. Through shallow channels and remove channels and small veins. After surgery, use compression (bandage or stocking on the foot).


It involves the removal of subcutaneous veins by exposing them to current. Method is more dangerous than radiofrequency ablation or classic surgery.


Cryosurgery allows you to remove the veins due to the low temperatures. With modern equipment, safe method. It is not always possible to calculate the depth of freezing without damaging surrounding tissue or leaving “surpluses”.

Home treatment of varicose veins

Varicose veins can be treated at home although systemic drugs (on prescription), though, ointments and gels, though the leeches (the treatment of varicose veins with leeches) and cabbage leaf, Apple cider vinegar. Also for home part suitable for compression garments or elastic bandaging (selected and recommended by a physician). For late stages of the disease, all these efforts are futile without radical surgery.

Thus, today, a radical method of getting rid of varicose veins can be considered only surgical methods, often combined with therapy or compression techniques.