Varicose veins typically affects the lower extremities, may develop years and even decades. Varicose veins (varicose veins) on your legs is always a dysfunction of the venous valves and blood flow. Proper blood flow is characterized by the movement of blood through the veins of the legs, from the bottom up (reverse gravity). Much of this process is possible due to venous valves, which prevent backflow of blood. Disruption of these valves lead to impaired venous blood flow and as a consequence to elongation of the veins. In such veins the blood begins to flow in a chaotic manner, often zastaivayas in the veins of the legs. Due to this background of significant pressure of the vascular wall does not stand up, expand and become thinner. Thus the dilated veins with the naked eye visible under the skin in the form of nodes. Often, due to the slowing of blood flow in the varicose veins is thrombosis. The violation of the processes of nutrition of the skin leads to the appearance of venous ulcers.
The reasons for the development of varicose veins on my feet quite a lot:
- Genetic predisposition (inherited disease predisposing factors – congenital weakness of the venous wall and valvular apparatus, loss of elasticity).
- Violation of blood circulation against the background of constipation, wearing tight shoes, Smoking, lack of physical activity.
- Hormonal medications (birth control monophasic pill with a high dose of estrogen leads to thickening of the blood).
- The increased pressure of the venous type, provocaverunt obesity, pregnancy, sedentary lifestyle (sedentary work), the permanent vertical loads (workers, whole day staying on her feet).
- Hormonal changes in old age.
These reasons can also lead to incorrect pathological flow of blood through the veins of the lower extremities – refluxus or backflow of blood from the deeper veins to superficial veins. These reasons contribute to the worsening of the condition in the future.
Symptoms of varicose veins on the legs
- extension of saphenous veins;
- burning sensation or heat in the course of the veins in the lower extremities;
- a feeling of heaviness in the legs;
- swelling of the soft tissues of the lower extremities in the evening (the area of the feet, ankles, lower legs);
- night cramps in the calf muscles;
- darkening and hardening of skin of the lower legs;
- pain along the veins;
- trophic ulcers.
Each patient has symptoms of varicose veins may be different, but one item remains constant – the feeling of heaviness in the legs, which is also called "syndrome of heavy legs". Most often symptomatic complex is most pronounced in the evening and also during extreme heat.
If the disease is started, the skin on the legs became cyanotic hue, and the patient at this stage no treatment is not getting, not rarely observed skin hyperpigmentation and lipodermatosclerosis, and in more serious cases develop sores.
The danger is not the varicose veins and developing on the background of this complication is thrombophlebitis (inflammation of the inner vein wall), leading to the formation of blood clots. The blood clots often block the lumen of the vein (phlebothrombosis), and can also break away and enter the lungs. As a result of serious complications of varicose veins among patients with lethal outcome.
Diagnosis of varicose veins on the legs
When discovering for themselves the above symptoms or some of them need urgently to go to the doctor phlebologist or vascular surgeon. The timeliness of disease detection depends on the nature of the treatment and prevention of complications.
For the diagnosis of varicose veins prescribed the following studies.
- An ultrasound or venous duplex imaging – evaluation of patency and extensio veins, direction of blood flow and detect blood clots in veins.
- Contrast venography – assessment of the condition, determination of the presence of tumors and thrombi by means of a reconstruction accurate "snapshot" of the veins of the patient on x-ray. Typically, this method is replaced by ultrasound, since the latter is considered to be more simple to implement.
When you need to immediately consult a doctor
If the following symptoms a visit to the physician should be immediate:
- The occurrence of acute pain in the lower extremities with any movement. While the leg appearance swollen and very tight, the skin is like burning.
- A feeling of weakness, accompanied by shortness of breath, feeling of lack of oxygen.
- Of the diseased veins began to ooze blood.
Treatment of varicose veins on the legs
Conservative treatments for varicose veins.
Non-surgical treatment applied at the initial stage of development of disease when there are no complications. Conservative methods include receiving specialised medication (angioprotectors, anticoagulants, venotoniki, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of tablets, ointments and gels) that will help relieve pain as well as prevention of complications.
Of great importance in the treatment of varicose veins is the restoration of the tone of blood vessels. Exercise is possible with the help of special tools. Means the domestic producers does not contain dyes, has a film shell, no preservatives, therefore, the active substance is diosmin absorbed faster, minimizing the likelihood of manifestations of allergic reactions.
Non-surgical treatment of varicose veins additionally involves wearing compression underwear, following a special diet, systematic physical activity (a complex of therapeutic exercises).
These measures reduce venous insufficiency, preventing the development of thrombosis. Then the doctor, in addition to the above measures of treatment of varicose veins may designate a course manual or hardware lymphatic drainage, treatments improve the outflow of blood from the lower limbs, reducing swelling. The effect of the procedure is not long-lasting.
Treatment of varicose veins with leeches.
Leech therapy is a fairly effective method of dealing with varicose veins. Once inside the diseased vein, the saliva of leeches, thanks to the content hirudin (natural heparin), promotes liquefactionibus the blood and prevents the formation of blood clots. Today, on the basis hirudin drugs have been created, making "contact with leeches" can be avoided.
Bezoperatsionnye modern methods of treatment of varicose veins on the legs.
Sclerotherapy is the most effective non-surgical treatment of varicose veins. During the procedure into the lumen of the vessel of the patient, the doctor injects a special drug that causes agglutination of its walls in the future (for 1.5 years), their resorption. The usual treatment at the stage of spider veins includes from 3 to 6 treatments on each leg. The result will be noticeable after 2-8 weeks, during which time there may be pain, bruising slight tingling, which gradually pass. The injected drug is in each case selected individually, so the risk of complications is minimal. During treatment the patient must wear compression hosiery.
The effectiveness of sclerotherapy in treatment of varicose veins can be compared with classic surgery, it gives it only the most modern techniques - endovenous laser coagulation, due to the emergence of a "foam form" (foam) sclerotherapy, and the procedure under ultrasound or translyuministsentnoy lamp. All this significantly reduced the number of side effects.
Sclerotherapy can be carried out using ultrasound scanner, then the process is called echosclerotherapy. Additional scanner application enables the physician to fully control the movement of the needle in Vienna and the distribution of the drug.
If the drug is administered in an altered vein in the form of a microfoam, the procedure is called foam-form sclerotherapy. Through closer contact microfoam with venous walls, the method has a high efficiency. Displacing blood from the vessel, microfoam promotes more rapid bonding and blocking functions.
endovasal or endovenous laser coagulation.
One of the modern and minimal invasive treatments of varicose veins on the legs. The effects of laser light on the damaged vein is performed under local anesthesia. The results are visible after a month after the procedure. The method is pretty costly.
Medical therapy of varicose veins on the legs compliment the folk remedies that will not only improve the tone and elasticity of venous walls, but also prevent further progression of the disease. Recipes of traditional medicine with regular use help to cure highly advanced cases of the disease (skin ulcers, thrombosis).
Before treatment, it is important to identify the cause of the disease, consult your doctor, do not tighten and do not wait for complications (skin ulcers, thrombosis), begin treatment as early as possible, while the thickness of the veins on the surface did not exceed 5 mm, and the nodes not more than 7 mm. During the therapeutic course is recommended to wear clothes and shoes that don't hinder movement, to abandon heavy physical activity and the habit to throw a leg over the other.
Modern methods of operational (surgical) treatment of varicose veins on the legs
In the absence of the desired result as a result of conservative treatment of varicose veins require surgical intervention. Surgery is a radical method of treatment of the disease, during which the removal of changed veins. Today this is done under tumescent anesthesia (local anesthesia of a mixture of natural anesthetics). The advantages of the method is that the patient can leave the clinic two hours after surgery, no postoperative hematomas, better tolerated, no intoxication, both during operations under General anesthesia.
Phlebectomy – through special punctures is removing the modified disease veins to normalize blood flow in the deep veins. Operation in some cases is preferable to sclerotherapy. Among the advantages there is a rapid recovery of the patient, small scars, besides the effect maintained over the years.
Short Stripping – removal of only the changed area of the vein through two small incisions. Pre-defines the location and length of affected vein. In this method the soft tissue of the patient does not suffer, there is a rapid recovery, no pain after surgery.
Endoscopic vein dissectione - in this method a doctor with a small size on the affected Vienna introduces into it an endoscope, which allows to obtain information on the internal condition of varicose veins, the extent of the affected area, as well as precision control over their actions during the cut-off section of the vein to minimize injury.
Prevention of varicose veins in the legs
- The restriction on access to the sauna, taking a hot bath, spending time in the sun (all of this leads to a decrease in venous tone and blood stasis).
- More physical activity (moderate Jogging, swimming, Hiking, aerobics, Cycling, skiing).
- Control over their weight.
- The rejection of the tight, tight clothes and narrow and tight shoes.
- Get rid of the habit to sit "foot to foot".
- Avoid constipation (eat right, keep drinking regime).
- Evenly distribute the load on the legs (do not sit or stand too long in one position).
- Contrast shower with cold water and cold feet.
- Wearing compression underwear to people at risk (pregnant women with hereditary predisposition, the employees who have sedentary work, or whose work is associated with serious physical exertion or the need to spend the whole day on my feet).
During the treatment of varicose veins, any physical exercise is only for the purpose of prevention.
Diet for varicose veins
- Limit salty, spicy and smoked food.
- Abstinence from alcohol.
- Restriction of meat products.
- Enrichment of the diet of fresh fruits and vegetables, food that promotes strengthening of vascular walls (carrots, olive oil, walnuts, rosehips, green tea, sprouted wheat, beans, green onions).
- Daily intake of Apple cider vinegar (per Cup of water 2 tsp.).
Upon detection of the first signs of varicose veins immediately contact a specialist. People included in the risk group (those who have predisposing factors), and having a genetic predisposition to varicose veins is recommended every two years to visit phlebologist with the mandatory ultrasound.