Varicose veins: symptoms and treatment

Varicose veins on the leg

Varicose veins in the legs the symptoms and treatment are related to each other. It is a widespread disease of the vessels, accompanied by a weakening of the valve aparata. Varicose heard everyone, and most people have an idea of how to look at the dilated vessels in the legs. But you need to know about the early signs of the disease and rules for the prevention of disease.

Why is there

Varicose disease of the lower extremities develops under the influence of versatile factors. The main causes for the pathology:

  • Genetic predisposition. In congenital deficiency of the connective tissue affecting valves. They are not able to perform its function is to prevent retrograde blood flow. The result is stagnation, the vessels dilate and deform, increasing the likelihood of blood clots.
  • Features of the Constitution. Excess weight causes increased load on the veins. Vessels become weaker, lose their tone and elasticity. The probability of disease in people with excessive body weight increases by more than 33%.
  • Lifestyle and nature of work. Varicose veins appear longer stay in a standing position, from excessive physical activity. In women with frequent use of high heel shoes. Causes of varicose veins include the use of tight underwear, including stockings, which leads to compression of the large veins in the groin area and disruption of normal circulation of the lower limbs, lack of physical activity, sedentary work in the same position.
  • The hormonal imbalance. Changes the amount of estrogen and progestogen in the blood can lead to a decrease in vascular tone. Provoke pathology can long-term use of hormonal oral contraceptives, the use of the drugs during menopause, etc.
  • Pregnancy. The growing fetus leads to constriction of blood vessels, development of blood stagnation in the pelvic organs and legs.

Determining the cause of varicose veins of the legs and its elimination will help to avoid the progression of disease and development of complications.


Varicose disease of the lower extremities is found for both women and men. Characterized by progressive course, in which there are the following degrees and types of varicose veins on the legs:

  • The compensation stage. During this period, the patient has no complaints of health deterioration. The initial symptoms — one or both legs in legs visualized the dilated vessels.
  • The stage subcompensation. There are complaints of leg pain, feeling of fullness, cramps. The legs become swollen, especially towards the end of the day.
  • Stage of decompensation. The patient's condition deteriorates, develop complications — dermatitis, eczema, hyperpigmentation trophic ulcer.

Varicose veins classification includes the following varieties:

  • A local lesion. In the pathological process involved segmental vein. Reflux (backward reflux of blood) is missing.
  • Segmental lesions. There is abnormal discharge of blood, which is involved in the surface or communicative vein.
  • A common lesion of the superficial veins with reflux. Varicose veins in men is manifested by the defeat of all superficial vessels. Most often on both feet at the same time.
  • The involvement in the pathological process of deep veins.

The types of varicose veins of the lower extremities according to the international classification:

  • Class 0. The absence of complaints and visible manifestations of the disease.
  • Class 1. Appear venous mesh, spider veins. The first complaints of health deterioration.
  • Class 2. Under the skin visualized dilated blood vessels.
  • Class 3. As a result of stagnation of blood there is swelling of the ankles and shins.
  • Class 4. In connection with circulatory problems develop signs of lipodermatosclerosis.
  • Class 5. There is a lesion of the epidermis, the skin is easily injured, heals poorly.
  • Class 6. Formed sores.

Symptoms and signs

Spider veins on the legs

The first signs of varicose veins of the legs in women — the appearance of telangiectasia or spider veins. At first notice they are extremely difficult because they are rare and are localized most often on the posterior surface of the tibia or below the knee. After a long stay on his feet or the use of high heel shoes occur the heaviness and slight swelling. Varicose veins in men is characterized by rapid fatigue of the legs.

Gradually the patient's condition worsens and the symptoms of varicose blood vessels visible to the naked eye. The veins to swell, become tortuous and bumpy, there are strands. Reduced skin sensitivity. In the night time does not exclude the occurrence of seizures. Swelling is more pronounced.

Varicose veins leads to disturbance of blood circulation, tissues are deficient of oxygen and nutrients. There trophic disorders, skin becomes smooth, shiny, pale. Signs of varicose veins men's legs are not swelling even after a long vacation. Itching, dermatitis.

In severe varicose veins symptoms include the formation of non-healing trophic ulcers of the ankles. It threatens the accession of secondary microflora and the development of infectious-inflammatory process. Leg varicose veins often complicated by the development of thrombophlebitis — inflammation of the vascular walls. Possible local increase of temperature in the heavies and low-grade fever.


Varicose veins determined on the basis of medical history and visual examination of the patient. To clarify the stage of disease, prevalence of pathological process of the blood flow characteristics, presence of collaterals, reflux, status of the valve apparatus requires an additional examination of the patient.

Ultrasound of the veins of the lower extremities

With varicose veins of the lower extremities need to do:

  • Duplex scanning or ultrasonic angioscanning. Gives the ability to image blood vessel throughout its length, to determine the presence of extension and return of blood flow, the condition of the valves.
  • Ultrasound lower extremity veins using contrast material. If you have any varicose veins, venography necessary to establish obstruction of superficial or deep veins in the legs. The study is required before surgical intervention to determine the method and extent of surgery.
  • CT or MRI with contrast. Allows to obtain a series of pictures, through which is mounted the vascular permeability, the degree to which the extension condition of the valve apparatus, the presence of collaterals, etc.

Varicose veins the legs it is necessary to conduct laboratory studies to assess the rheological properties of blood and other indicators. For this you need to take:

  • General analysis of blood. In the presence of inflammation increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, increased leukocyte count.
  • Koagulogrammou test for lupus angiboust etc. Allow you to set the tendency to increased thrombus formation, coagulation status and anticoercive of the blood system.

How to treat

To treat varicose veins in men legs be complex. The therapeutic scheme is developed taking into account the stage of the disease, the prevalence of pathological process, presence of complications and other factors.

Conservative methods of treatment of varicose veins without surgery performed in the initial stages of the disease. With their help it is possible to stop the progression of disease, strengthen the walls of blood vessels, increase the tone and elasticity of veins, normalize blood circulation and prevent the development of stagnant phenomena.

An important role in the treatment of the disease plays the use of compression hosiery. Special hosiery provide a variable pressure along the leg, do not allow stagnation of blood, support muscles, prevents the development of edema. Wear after a night's rest, getting out of bed. Knitwear is chosen individually, because each product there is a different degree of compression.

What kind of doctor treats varicose veins

To the doctor when varicose veins in the legs need as early as possible. For this you need to know what kind of doctor treats varicose veins. So first of all should go to the district physician or family doctor. After examination, the specialist will give a direction on consultation to the doctor who treats varicose veins, it is called flebologia. Is a specialist dealing with diseases of the veins.

If a specialized doctor for varicose veins in the outpatient clinic or in the hospital is absent, the treatment of all types of vascular pathology doing an angiologist or surgeon.

If necessary, surgical treatment of varicose veins should consult a doctor-phlebologist or vascular surgeon. In the district hospital of such problems has been a General surgeon.

How to cure drug

You can cure varicose veins without surgery only in the initial stages of the disease. This requires to use the following groups of medicines:

  • Phlebotonics. Affect the condition of the vascular walls. Increase their density, reduce the fragility and permeability of capillaries, increase skin tone and elasticity, have angioprotective properties. Restore the normal flow of blood through the vessels, stimulate the flow of lymph.
  • Anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents. Normalize the rheological properties of blood. Her thin, prevent the formation of blood clots. Used to prevent complications.
  • Antioxidants. Accelerate the elimination of toxins and other harmful components from the human body. Are beneficial to the state of the hematopoietic system. This means on the basis of an extract of Ginkgo, multivitamin complexes.
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs. Help relieve pain, inflammation, heaviness, bloating, swelling and other unpleasant symptoms of disease. They must be used carefully, no longer than 10-14 days. This is due to the fact that drugs have an adverse effect on the condition of the digestive tract, can cause an exacerbation of peptic ulcer disease. With VRV you can use them in the form of a solution for intramuscular injection, tablets for oral use and rectal suppositories.

To treat varicose veins have long, within a few months. It is obligatory to reception of phlebotonics in summer, because this time, the human body, including blood vessels, is experiencing increased stress.

Effective treatment of varicose veins includes the use of ointments and gels for topical use. They need to be rubbed into the region of the pathologically dilated veins several times a day. Drugs stimulate microcirculation, activates tissue repair at the cellular level.

How to get rid of the disease by using folk remedies

Varicose veins treatment involves the use of folk remedies. They can be used as a complement to traditional medical therapy. They help to get rid of varicose veins in the short term is to stop the progression of disease and improve the health of the patient.

To treat varicose veins on the legs in women, you can use the following folk remedies:

Tincture of horse chestnut
  • Packs of tomatoes. You can use tomatoes of any degree of maturity. Some fruits should be cut into rings to make advanced vessels and nodes, to fix. After some time in this place should appear a slight burning sensation, after which a compress should be removed, and feet and rinse. To deal with varicose veins with this method you need at least 2-3 weeks.
  • Lemon rubbing. Citrus fruits have a pronounced tonic effect. For the procedure to cut a slice of lemon and RUB into the epidermis.
  • Tincture of horse chestnut. To prepare the drug the fruit should be crushed, put in a glass container. To half fill with vodka or diluted alcohol. Tara put in a dark and cool place, periodically shake. To withstand at least 1 month. You need to take medicine for 5-10 drops 3-4 times per day. To treat varicose veins on the legs in men tincture chestnut you need for 2-4 months.
  • Apple cider vinegar is 6%. The remedy tones blood vessels and strengthens their walls, helps to eliminate edema. Used for rubbing into the skin, the procedure need to do for varicose veins regularly for several weeks.
  • A compress of Kalanchoe. Helps to remove small varicose veins in men. To prepare the medication you need to take a few leaves of the plant, chop and pour diluted alcohol. Means to insist 7-10 days. To be used for applying compresses is a lot to put on a cotton piece of fabric, place on the area of diseased vessels, top cover with a plastic bag, wrap up and strengthened. Treated varicose veins for a long time, a few weeks. Procedure is desirable to do at night, to the medicine act as long as possible.

Before using folk methods of treatment of varicose veins, it is necessary to coordinate them with your doctor. Some methods can bring more harm than good.


You can cure varicose veins permanently the only way is through surgery. However, any operation is accompanied by some risks, so make use of it it is desirable only when expressed changes in the blood vessels. With the help of surgical treatment will be able to completely remove the varicose veins.

Varicose veins treatment is selected based on the characteristics of the disease. Main methods:

  • Laser removal. With the beam are sealed problematic veins of small diameter. They stop blood circulation, over time, their lumen fused. The uniqueness of the method lies in the precision of impact, the surrounding tissue is not damaged. Control is carried out using ultrasonic sensor. The procedure is less traumatic, requires no special training, done on an outpatient basis.
  • Sclerotherapy. To remove varicose veins in the lumen of the vessel introduced a special substance sclerosant. The drug causes the fusion vein, with subsequent resorption. The procedure is performed without anesthesia, its duration does not exceed 30-40 minutes. After the manipulation the patient must wear special compression underwear. Sclerotherapy is effective against spider veins and spider veins, telangiectasia, dilated and knotted blood vessels, and in severe course of the disease.
  • Miniphlebectomy. On the skin are small holes through which clean the affected vessels. The procedure is performed under local or General anesthesia. Miniphlebectomy used to fight a winding and defective veins.

What is dangerous

Diseases of the vessels belong to the systemic pathologies. The defeat of the veins of the lower extremities is easy to notice, however, the process often spreads to other vessels. Dangerous varicose veins on the legs in women especially those that may go to the pelvic organs. It threatens the development of complications during pregnancy. And in this period many drugs is strictly forbidden.

Dangerous varicose veins on the legs in men, as the process can spread to the genitals, in particular, lead to dilatation of the spermatic cord. This can lead to the occurrence of male infertility.

Other complications VRV are to increase the likelihood of blood clots and blockage of blood vessels. It is possible the development of phlebitis. Dangerous disease and the formation of trophic ulcers. It is an open gate for infections, poorly healing wounds in connection with violation of blood supply to the tissues.


Physical activity - prevention of varicose veins

To prevent the development of varicose disease of the lower extremities, you need to stay healthy from a young age. Prevention more effective than treatment of the feet with the development of complications.

To have good blood circulation, it is necessary to provide enough physical activity. If the person is at work for a long period of time is in the same situation, you should regularly do some stretching. Need a responsible approach to the selection of shoes — it should be on a small heel (not exceeding 6 cm), comfortable, does not compress the leg.

You need to watch the weight. Excessive weight is one of the predisposing factors to the development of disease. In addition, leads to an increased load on the blood vessels. The clothes should be from natural fabrics. Avoid using too tight underwear to avoid compression of major vessels in the groin area.

During hygienic procedures, it is desirable to use the shower, which gives the ability to change the pressure and the temperature of the water. Using these tricks you can toning blood vessels, increase the blood flow.

Preferably daily exercise or exercise. Do not have to run a few kilometers at a time, quite a pleasure to enjoy the pool, Hiking or Cycling.

Before the use of hormonal contraceptives should consult not only a gynecologist, but phlebologist, hand over analyzes on hormones. If you change the level of female hormones in the blood, it may adversely affect the condition of blood vessels.